Blood Testing Defenses

Blood Testing Defenses


Blood tests have a number of issues that many practitioners overlook. Among these issues are the proper collection, transportation, and storage of the sample prior to analysis, the effects of the preservative on analysis, the type of sample analyzed, and the method of analysis. Because there are so many methods of analysis, it is not prudent to provide articles on them here, but many good articles on the other issues are listed in this section.

Preservation / Contamination / Storage / Stability 

“The Stability of Alcohol Content in Samples of Blood and Urine,” Hayden, P; Layden, M; Hickey, M. 146 Irish Journal of Medical Science 48 (1978).

“The Stability of Ethanol in Stored Blood Part I. Important Variables and Interpretation of Results,” Brown, G; Neylan, D; Reynolds, W; Smalldon, K. 66 Analytica Chimica Acta 271 (1973).

“The Stability of Ethanol in Stored Blood. Part II: The Mechanism of Ethanol Oxidation,” Smalldon, K; Brown, G. 66 Analytica Chimica Acta 285 (1973).

“The Stability of Ethyl Alcohol in Forensic Blood Specimens,” Chang, R; Smith, W; Walkin, E; Reynolds, P. 8 Journal of Analytical Toxicology 66 (1984).

“The Stability of Ordinary Blood Alcohol Samples Held Various Periods of Time Under Different Conditions,” Glendening, B; Waugh, T. 10 J Foren Sci 192 (1965).

“Contamination of Blood Specimens for Alcohol Analysis During Collection,” Dubowski, K; Essary, N. Abstracts & Reviews in Alcohol & Driving 4:3 (1983).

The "Salting Out" Effect in Blood Testing 

“Salting-Out Effect of Sodium Fluoride and Its Influence on the Analysis of Ethanol by Headspace Gas Chromatography,” A. W. Jones 18 (4) Journal of Analytical Toxicology 429-439 (1994).

“Effect of Different Concentrations of Sodium Fluoride on Blood Alcohol Determination by Headspace Gas Chromatography Using the Internal Standard Method,” Anil A. Solanky, Dianna J. Matthias, Dennis C. Harvey, Dan E. DeFraga 18(1) Journal of Analytical Toxicology 215-218 (1994).

Plasma / Serum to Whole Blood Ratio in Blood Testing 

“Comparison of Plasma, Serum, and Whole Blood Ethanol Concentrations,” Charles Winek, Mark Carfagna 11 (2) Journal of Analytical Toxicology 300-305 (1953).

“Relation Between Serum and Whole-Blood Ethanol Concentrations,” Rainey, P. Clinical Chemistry 39:2288 (1993).

“Serum Alcohol Is Not the Same as Blood Alcohol Concentration,” Kurt, T. Annals of Emergency Medicine 25 (3):430 (1995).

“Distribution of Ethanol: Plasma to Whole Blood Ratios,” Hodgson, B; Shajani, N. Canadian Society of Forensic Science Journal 18:73 (1985).

Saliva to Whole Blood Ratio in Blood Testing 

“Correlation of Ethanol Concentration in Blood and Saliva,” McColl, K; Whiting, B; Moore, M; Goldberg, A. 56 Clinical Science 283 (1979).

“Distribution of Ethanol Between Saliva and Blood in Man,” Jones, A. 6 Clin & Exper Pharmacol & Physiol 53 (1979).

“The Comparability of Ethanol Concentrations in Peripheral Blood and Saliva,” Haeckel, R; Bucklitsch, I. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry 25:199 (1987).

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